Sout Al Horeya, The Voice of Freedom

Egyptian hymn during the 18 days when the country was divided enters the street and HosniMubarak. The song sends messages of strength and optimism. “In every street in my country the voice of freedom we are called.” This is what we sang in the famous TahirSquare in Cairo. It is a catchy rock tune composed in revolution by Amir Eid and Hany Adel, guitarist and singer of popular groups and West el Balad Cairokee.

Patricia Marco


Irhal, Ramy Essam

Ramy Essam, the singer of the revolution

With their song “Irhal” (get out), Ramy Essam, known as the singer of the revolution, encouraged thousands of Egyptians in Tahrir Square to demand the resignation of Hosni Mubarak.

He is a citizen, born in Mansoura, that before the start of the riots and protest songs he had composed on the regime of Hosni Mubarak. Talk about an ass and his ass. The little donkey implores the father to let him push the cart in an obvious satire Mubarak and his son, who was to inherit power.
He sang this song, and those made by him during the two weeks he spent camped in Tahir Square. After the second time Mubarak appeared on Egyptian television, in full revolt, announcing that he stayed in power until elections in September, became “singer of the revolution.” Listening to the words of Mubarak, with all his cynicism and contempt for the people wrote what millions of Egyptians waiting in the streets of the country: “Irhal” (get out). Someone went to youtube video of the song sung in Tahir Square and became the song of the Egyptian revolution.
But the Egyptian revolution was not just a party. There was violence, as occurred on February 2, the bloody Wednesday of the camels. That day the Mubarak regime sent to Cairo’s Tahrir Square hundreds of his followers on horses and camels, and armed with stones and sticks to attack the protesters to death. Ramy stoned in the head, broke his face. The days passed in Tahrir Square and the feeling of appropriating our future grew.But it was just two weeks after it to start the protest last Tuesday that the country endured Mubarak as president, when I really felt that something big was happening. That day arrived in Tahrir Square hundreds of thousands of middle class people so far had not been present. Doctors, engineers, professionals from all sectors came to support the massive movement. A vast and important area of ​​the country that managed to defeat the fears generated by the misconceptions about people of the place came to tell Mubarak “Irhal.”Three days later, Mubarak left office.
After 18 days that shook up his fall to the Egyptian regime, I went to take a turn Tahrir Square, where he had called for a new demonstration. Some soldiers captured and tortured me for four hours with all kinds of torture: electric shocks, club, blows. Finally, let me go with the body covered with wounds, as a kind of living standard to warn the Egyptians what the army can do against any person at any time. In my body you can read that our revolution is in danger.
(As told by himself.)

Patricia Marco


The radio was an important element in one of the most dangerous and fascinating stages of the history of the Humanity in the war between The United States and the Soviet Union (Cold War).

Radio Liberty is a North American radio that was fighting against the former Soviet Union.

With the demolition of these facilities it put on end to that epoch in Spain and his activities of anti-communist publicity.

image source:

Content and image source accessed on 27/12/2011.

Edited by: Nuria
Posted by: Alex de Haro


In the cold war there was much American and Russian advertisement.

There exist three types of political advertisement:

  • White advertisement: It calls this way to the advertisement that we know where from it comes. In conclusion it can be published of official form
  • Gray advertisement: It appears like neutrally, but it transmits false information
  • Black advertisement: It appears of amicable form, but really it is from the enemy.

Example of American advertisement:

image source:

Content and image source accessed on 27/12/2011.

Edited by: Nuria
Posted by: Alex de Haro

History of Euro

In 1971 USA abolished the fixed link between the dollar and the official price of gold, As a result, in March 1979, EU created theEMSin order to prevent exchange fluctuations of more than 2.25 % between the European currencies.

At the European Council in Madridin June 1989, EU leaders adopted a three-stage plan for economic and monetary union. This plan became part of the Maastricht Treaty on European Union adopted by the European Council in December 1991.

The first stage began on 1 July 1990, the second one, on 1 January 1994 and, the third one, that was the birth of the euro, on 1 January 1999. That year, 11 countries adopted the euro:Austria,Belgium,Finland,France,Germany,Ireland,Italy,Luxembourg, theNetherlands,PortugalandSpain,Greecejoined them on 1 January 2001). Euro as a cash currency did not become a legal tender until later, on January 1, 2002.


Image source:,r:6,s:0

(Consulted 20/12/2011)

From 2001, whenGreeceadopted this common money, till nowadays, other countries have also adopted the euro.

On 1st January 2004,CzechRepublic,Estonia,Cyprus,Latvia,Lithuania,Hungary,Malta,Poland,Slovenia andSlovakia adopted the euro.

On 1st January 2007,Bulgaria andRomania joined this group.

On  1st January 2011,Estonia, finally, adopted the euro.

Image source:×300.jpg&w=300&h=300&ei=mCLxTsksh_byA76DiM0B&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1100&vpy=109&dur=685&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=145&ty=99&sig=108218433832746624470&page=1&tbnh=134&tbnw=135&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0

(consulted 20/12/2011)

Information source:

Written by Mireya Vicent.



Europe Day is an annual celebration of peace and unity in Europe. Europe Day has been designed in two separate designations dates: 5th May by the Council of Europe, and 9th May by the European Union. That day is also known as Schuman’s Day, as it commemorates the historical speech made by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Schuman. Europe Day is one of the European symbols designed to foster unity between Europeans.

The Europe Day has become one of the symbols of European Union along with the flag, the anthem, the motto and the Euro. The Europe Day, unlike the other symbols, is just a  symbol of the European Union.

Despite being a day of celebration, European countries don’t celebrate it with big parties like national holidays. However, in 2006,Franceorganized several celebrations that included free entrance to the lounge where the speech was delivered, as well as the lighting of the arch of Victory of Paris and theEiffelTowerwith blue lights.,r:18,s:0



United in diversity is the official motto (in the English language) of the European Union. It’s translations in other 22 languages of the EU has the same meaning. The Latin version, In varietate Concordia, is also used as a compromise. It is one of the newest symbols of Europe, but it is specific from the EU rather than having been originated from the European Council.

According to the European Commission:

“The motto means that, via the EU, Europeans are united in working together for peace and prosperity, and that the many different cultures, traditions and languages in Europe are a positive asset for the continent.”

The European motto was first adopted in May 2000 as “Unity in diversity” through a non official process since it came from a competition that involved 80,000 students from 15 countries of the European Union.

In 2004, the motto was written into the failed European Constitution‘s Article I-8 about the EU’s symbols.

“Article I-8

The symbols of the Union
The flag of the Union shall be a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background.
The anthem of the Union shall be based on the ‘Ode to Joy‘ from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven.
The motto of the Union shall be: ‘United in diversity’.
The currency of the Union shall be the euro.
Europe day shall be celebrated on 9 May throughout theUnion.”

Written by Saioa García Garaikoetxea.


The Euro

The euro is the currency of 17 countries in the EU, the eurozone, which consists ofAustria,Belgium,Cyprus,Estonia,Finland,France,Germany,Greece,Ireland,Italy,Luxembourg,Malta, theNetherlands,Portugal,Slovakia,SloveniaandSpain. Euro’s banknotes and coins could finally be used by their residents in 2002. Today, it is one of the most powerful currencies in the world.

The symbol of the euro is €. There are coins of 2€, 1€, 50 c, 20 c, 10c and 5c, and notes of 500€, 200€, 100€, 50€, 20€, 10€ and 5€. One euro is one hundred eurocents.

The design of the coins and notes depends on the country. Every coin has a common side and a specific one:

Iguácel Cuiral – Group 8

Sources (all of them accessed on 20/12/2011):

Map source: (Accessed on 20/12/11)

Euro coins source: (Accessed on 20/12/11)

More information about the Euro: